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MapleStory Guide: Homework Help
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Table of Contents


English and Language Arts
Understanding Literature
Creative Writing
Essay Writing
Poetry
Other Material

Mathematics
Pre-Algebra
Algebra
Geometry
Trigonometry

Sciences
Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Earth and Environmental Sciences

Social Studies (under construction)
American History
World History
European History
Government and Politics


English and Language Arts


Understanding Literature


Basic literary devices
http://mrbraiman.home.att.net/lit.htm
A wonderful site listing and explaining the most common literary devices, elements and techniques such as "alliteration", "motif", etc. It provides examples for most of them.

Common themes in literature
http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/patten/theme.html
http://www3.delta.edu/drsnyder/CommonThemesInLiterature.html
Themes can be a rather elusive concept for many students. If you have difficulty understanding what the underlying theme is to a piece of work, these websites might give you some ideas.


Creative Writing


How to write a short story
http://www.write101.com/shortstory.htm
http://www.shortstorygroup.com/storytips.htm
Short stories are often the most difficult challenge for beginner writers. There is often a tendency to use too much description and then run out of space for a plot to develop. Often teachers will ask for a story a page or two long. You'll want to jump into the action almost immediately, so that your resolution doesn't become the typical "...and then he woke up" ending. These websites contain some good advice about keeping a good story short and sweet. Here is an example of a short story, around 500 words long: http://www.storybytes.com/view-stories/1999/could-you-die.html

Writing longer stories
http://jerz.setonhill.edu/writing/creative/shortstory/
This website addresses a longer homework assignment for students, ie. to write a story 10 to 15 pages long. By literary standards, that is still "short", but nevertheless, gives you enough room for character development and a good plot.

Descriptive writing
http://www.montanalife.com/writing/descriptivewriting_techniques.html
For times when you are asked to write a descriptive paragraph.


Essay Writing


How to write a basic 5-paragraph essay
http://www.bookrags.com/articles/4.html (contains an example of an outline for the essay at the bottom of the page)
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/GRAMMAR/fivepar.htm
The 5-paragraph essay is the introduction to a world of essay writing for students. If you got this down, you'll be able to quickly write basic essays for tests and SATs.

Modes of persuasion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modesof_persuasion
To write a persuasive essay, you want to be able to appeal to the audience's ethics, emotions, or logic. These are the three modes of appeal as defined by Aristotle early on in The Rhetoric.

List of logical fallacies
http://www.philosophicalsociety.com/Logical%20Fallacies.htm
If you need to pick apart someone else's argument or opinion, here is a big list of logical fallacies, Latin names included, that you can honestly build a critical essay upon.


Poetry


Poetic devices
http://www.bestlibrary.org/murray/2008/05/poetic-devices.html
A bit more geared towards poetry, this site contains a more advanced list of literary devices used in poems, such as "assonance" or "extended metaphor".

Forms of poetry
http://thewordshop.tripod.com/forms.html
A very comprehensive list on different poetic forms, from the haiku to the sestina and links to examples and descriptions of how to write them.


Other Material


Dictionaries: http://dictionary.reference.com/ | http://www.merriam-webster.com/
Descriptive words list: http://www.kisd.org/khs/english/help%20page/Descriptive%20Words.htm
Thesaurus: http://thesaurus.reference.com/
Rhyme dictionary: http://www.rhymezone.com/
MLA Citation: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/

Back to Contents


Mathematics


General Math Help


http://hotmath.com/
The password you need to log in is Walton2009. [credit: TakeOutGunz]

http://www.e-tutor.com/et2/graphing/
This is an e-graph calculator in the Cartesian coordinate system. Just enter the function and it'll graph it for you. [credit: icemage07]

http://mathforum.org/dr.math/
A math forum if you need more help on tricky math problems. [credit: icemage07]


Pre-Algebra


Pre-algebra terms and definitions
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/classroom/classes/Pre-Algebra.html
Basically a list of terms that you should know the meaning of in Pre-Algebra. The difference between a real number and an integer for example.

Graphing
http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/prealg/graph.html
The Cartesian plane is generally introduced between Pre-Algebra and Algebra, but this webpage provides a decent introduction suitable for a 7th-8th grade level.

Fractions and ratios
http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/prealg/frac.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg/ratios.html
The only real difference between a fraction and a ratio is that the latter comes with units of measurement that often need to be converted. These sites provide a good summary of the two.

Properties of real numbers
http://www.jamesbrennan.org/algebra/numbers/propertiesofrealnumbers1.htm
Basic properties of real numbers, such as the distributive property, etc. A useful precursor to algebra, when many of the same properties apply to variables.

Fraction to decimal conversions
http://www.math.com/tables/general/arithmetic/fradec.htm

Square roots
http://www.math.com/school/subject1/lessons/S1U1L9DP.html
A few pages about square roots; how to solve them without a calculator, how to rewrite them, etc. Use the "next" button on the bottom of the page to navigate.

Interest and compound interest
http://www.math.com/tables/general/interest.htm
For interest and compound interest calculations and when to use the two.


Algebra


Basic equations
Single-variable: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg/eq.html
Multi-variable: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg/eq2.html
Inequalities: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg2/eq.html
Most of algebra has to do with solving equations. This page can solve equations that you input: http://www.myalgebra.com/

Other functions
Greatest integer, absolute value: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg2/graphs.html
Inverse, logarithmic, exponential functions: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg2/log.html
Log graphs: http://www.purplemath.com/modules/graphlog.htm
Finding the inverse of a function: http://www.purplemath.com/modules/invrsfcn3.htm | http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Inverse-Functions.topicArticleId-38949,articleId-38914.html
Quadratics: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg2/quad2.html

Factoring
http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg/factoring.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoEoWzHXaJ8 (video)
Factoring is very important because it can help you simplify and even solve otherwise complicated equations. The video in particular, shows a good step-by-step guide of how to factor.

Simplifying algebraic fractions
Basic: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg/frac.html
Complex fractions and division of polynomials: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg2/frace.html
Long division (video): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6ghhd7kwQ
Teaches you how to deal with fractions that have variables in them, as well as how to do long division with polynomials to solve an equation.

Graphing equations
Basic introduction: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg/CPGraphing.html
Writing equations to the graph of the line: http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg/grapheq.html
Quadratic function graphing tutorials: http://www.analyzemath.com/quadraticg/quadraticg.htm | http://www.analyzemath.com/quadratics/quadratics.htm
The links above teach you how to graph linear and quadratic equations, as well as be able to derive the equation from a given graph.

Radicals
Basic simplification: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Radicals.topicArticleId-38949,articleId-38923.html
Rational exponents: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Rational-Exponents.topicArticleId-38949,articleId-38928.html
Complex and imaginary numbers: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Complex-Numbers.topicArticleId-38949,articleId-38929.html
The cliffsnotes links are the best explanations for radicals that I could find. Not included are the exact pages to how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide radicals, but it's easy to find those pages on the side bar of the actual website.


Geometry


Glossary of terms
http://library.thinkquest.org/2647/geometry/glossary.htm
Geometry contains a lot of specific definitions that might deviate from the colloquial usage. This list provides good definitions for most terms you will encounter.

List of geometric theorems/postulates
Basic theorems: http://library.thinkquest.org/2647/geometry/intro/p&t.htm
More comprehensive lists: http://highschoolhack.wordpress.com/2008/01/07/geometry-theorems/ | http://staff.fcps.net/scombs/PostulatesTheorems.htm
The easiest way to remember geometric proofs is to keep a little notebook and write them down every time you encounter a new one in the course of your studies, and include an example as well. If you have not done that, these sites still provide a passable list.

How to do a geometric proof
http://www.sparknotes.com/math/geometry3/geometricproofs/section1.html
The structure of a proof explained.


Trigonometry


The unit circle
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c9/Unitcircleangles.svg/720px-Unitcircle_angles.svg.png
Understanding radians: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Radians.topicArticleId-11658,articleId-11589.html
One of the most useful tools in trig. You should be able to reproduce this circle yourself by memory in about 1-2 minutes. It really helps during tests in particular.

The trigonometric identities
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Fundamental-Identities.topicArticleId-11658,articleId-11608.html
A basic list of trig identities, i.e. what can be converted into what. These can help greatly in simplifying very complex trig functions.

The law of sines and cosines
http://www.clarku.edu/~djoyce/trig/laws.html
Law of sines in-depth: http://www.themathpage.com/aTrig/law-of-sines.htm
Law of cosines in-depth: http://www.themathpage.com/aTrig/law-of-cosines.htm
Trigonometry of triangles. The laws will help you solve for the angles and lengths of triangles given certain measurements.

Graphing trigonometric functions
Basic graphs: http://www.sparknotes.com/math/trigonometry/graphs/section2.rhtml
Graphing y = sin ax: http://www.themathpage.com/atrig/graphs-trig.htm
Graphing trig functions with transformations: http://teachers.henrico.k12.va.us/math/ito/08TrigGraphs/8LES2/graphtrig_n.pdf
The websites above cover graphing trig functions, including when there are shifts or scalar modifications.

Inverse trig functions
http://www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/zoo/invtrig.html
http://www.themathpage.com/atrig/inverseTrig.htm
For arctan, arcsin, arccos, arccsc, arccot and arcsec functions.


Calculus


http://archives.math.utk.edu/visual.calculus/
This may help if you're beginning calculus. Includes a full tutorial on how to integrate and differentiate, take the limits, etc.

http://www.math.oregonstate.edu/home/programs/undergrad/CalculusQuestStudyGuides/SandS/index.html
Sequence and series.

http://www.math.oregonstate.edu/home/programs/undergrad/CalculusQuestStudyGuides/vcalc/vcalc.html
Vector calculus.

http://fooplot.com/
Online graphing calculator.

[credit to icemage07 for the calculus links]

Back to Contents


Sciences


Biology


AP Biology Notes: http://www.geocities.com/apbiowi/notes.html

Cell structure and function
Everything you need to know about the water molecule: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/sitemap.html
Interactive overview of a cell: http://www.johnkyrk.com/CellIndex.html
Cellular organelles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organelle | http://training.seer.cancer.gov/moduleanatomy/unit21cellfunctions_1.html
The cell membrane: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellmembrane
Inner life of a cell: http://aimediaserver4.com/studiodaily/videoplayer/?src=ai4/harvard/harvard.swf&width=640&height=520
Cells are the building blocks of life. To understand how things live and work and move, it is important to understand cell structure and function as covered by these sites.

Cellular reproduction
[quote]Videos[/quote]Binary fission: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FcjAsTTN8qU
Mitosis: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru8zCJRyTI
Meiosis: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MqaJqLL49a0&feature=related
[quote]Websites[/quote]Binary fission: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binaryfission
Mitosis: http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/mitosis.php | http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitosis.html
Meiosis: http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/meiosis.php | http://www.johnkyrk.com/meiosis.html
Cells reproduce in three ways. Most biology courses will expect you to be familiar with mitosis and meiosis, so these sites provide a good overview.

Photosynthesis and respiration
[quote]Photosynthesis[/quote]Interactive light reactions: http://www.johnkyrk.com/photosynthesis.html
Interactive dark reactions: http://www.johnkyrk.com/photosynthesisdark.html
Text summary of photosynthesis, easy to navigate: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html
[quote]Respiration[/quote]Glycolysis (interactive): http://www.johnkyrk.com/glycolysis.html
Glycolysis (in-depth, step-by-step text overview): http://www.terravivida.com/vivida/glyintro/
Krebs acid cycle (interactive): http://www.johnkyrk.com/krebs.html
Krebs acid cycle (thorough text summary): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citricacid_cycle
Anaerobic respiration: http://campus.northpark.edu/biology/cell/anaerobicresp.html
How cells produce energy. The process can be quite complicated, so I have chosen links with interactive or animated tutorials rather than primarily text.

Heredity and genetics
DNA replication (text and diagrams): http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/D/DNAReplication.html
DNA replication (interactive): http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/0471393878/student/animations/dnareplication/index.html
DNA transcription: http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranscription.html | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_(genetics)
DNA translation (interactive): http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranslation.html
Chromosomes and inheritance: http://wps.prenhall.com/esmkroghbiology3/0,8750,1136223-,00.html
Genotypes and phenotypes: http://www.science.uva.nl/~seop/entries/genotype-phenotype/
Monohybrid Mendelian crosses (interactive): http://science.nhmccd.edu/biol/monohybr/monhybr.html
Dihybrid Mendelian crosses (interactive): http://science.nhmccd.edu/Biol/dihybrid/dihybrid.html
These sites cover everything from DNA being transcribed and translated at a molecular level to genetic crosses throughout generations.

Evolution
Comprehensive website on evolution done by Berkeley University: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo01

Botany
Basic plant biology: http://www.mbgnet.net/bioplants/
Plant tissue systems: http://biology.about.com/library/weekly/aa030101a.htm
Xylem: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xylem
Phloem: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phloem
Chloroplast: http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cellchloroplast.html
Parts of a flower: http://www.naturegrid.org.uk/qca/flowerparts.html
These sites provide a good spread of information about plants that is generally covered by a high school biology course.

Physiology
[quote]Body systems[/quote]The digestive system: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/ | http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/G/GITract.html
http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/systems/respiration.html | http://www.lungusa.org/site/c.dvLUK9O0E/b.22576/k.7FFF/HumanRespiratorySystem.htm (respiratory system)
http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/cir1.htm | http://www.globalclassroom.org/hemo.html (the circulatory system)
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/skeletalsystem.html (the skeletal system) | http://health.howstuffworks.com/muscle.htm (how muscles work)
http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookNERV.html | http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html (the nervous system)
http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/bodybasics/immune.html (the immune system)
The female reproductive system: http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexualhealth/changingbody/femalerepro.html
The male reproductive system: http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexualhealth/changingbody/malerepro.html
[quote]Organs[/quote]The heart: http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/heart.html
The lung: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung
The brain: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html
[quote]Vision and hearing[/quote]Vision: http://www.howstuffworks.com/eye.htm
Hearing: http://www.howstuffworks.com/hearing.htm
These webpages have to do with body systems and the functions of the human body.

Back to Contents


Chemistry


The Periodic Table: http://www.elementsdatabase.com/

Acids & bases
Basic introduction: http://chemistry.about.com/od/acidsbases/a/acidsbasesterms.htm
Calculating pH and pOH: http://dl.clackamas.edu/ch105-05/calculat1.htm
Nomenclature: http://dl.clackamas.edu/ch105-05/nomencla.htm
Titrations: http://www.sparknotes.com/chemistry/acidsbases/titrations/section1.html
Salts and neutralization: http://chemistry.about.com/od/acidsbases/a/aa110204a.htm
Buffers: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/buffers.html
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for buffers: http://www.chembuddy.com/?left=pH-calculation&right=pH-buffers-henderson-hasselbalch
These sites cover basic properties, formulas, and reactions to do with acids and bases.

Atomic & molecular structure
Moles: http://chemistry.about.com/od/atomicmolecularstructure/a/moleculesmoles.htm
Bonding: http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Structure/bonds.htm
Structure of the atom: http://shodor.org/unchem/basic/atom/index.html
Lewis structures: http://www.ausetute.com.au/lewisstr.html
Quantum mechanics: http://www.teachersdomain.org/assets/wgbh/phy03/phy03docqmechatom/phy03docqmechatom.pdf | http://library.thinkquest.org/C004970/atoms/orbital.htm
The Pauli exclusion principle: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/pauli.html
Hund's law: http://www2.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/CHEM1/elecon7.html
From the simple diagrams of atoms provided by Lewis structures, to the more complicated atomic models in quantum mechanics, these pages cover atomic and molecular structure.

Gases
Overview of gases: http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/gases/
Ideal gases: http://www.sparknotes.com/chemistry/gases/ideal
The gas laws: http://www.shodor.org/UNChem/advanced/gas/
The gas laws and their applications.

Balancing equations
Stoichiometry: http://www.shodor.org/UNChem/basic/stoic/
Writing equations for a reaction: http://www.roomd113.com/reaction%20notes.htm
Basic equation balancing: http://chemistry.about.com/cs/stoichiometry/a/aa042903a.htm
Redox reactions: http://chemistry.about.com/od/generalchemistry/ss/redoxbal.htm
Higher order reactions: http://chemistry.about.com/od/lecturenotesl3/a/reactionorder.htm
The above sites cover everything from basic stoichiometry to more complicated reactions.

Thermochemistry
Factors that affect reactions: http://chemistry.about.com/od/stoichiometry/a/reactionrate.htm
Laws of thermochemistry: http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa073003a.htm
Applications of thermochemistry: http://chemistry.about.com/od/atomicmolecularstructure/a/moleculesmoles.htm
Hess's law: http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c120/hess.html
Thermochemistry for exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Organic chemistry
Properties of carbon: http://www.dendritics.com/scales/el-carbon.asp
Nomenclature: http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/
Basic organic chemistry: http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module
viewer.php?mid=60
Organic chemistry notes: http://library.thinkquest.org/3659/orgchem/
Problem guides for organic chemistry: http://www.chemhelper.com/tutorials.html
Organic chemistry and all you need to know about names, properties, and types of molecules and bonds.

Back to Contents


Physics


Newton's laws
Newton's laws/application to problems: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Newt.html
Forces and friction: http://library.thinkquest.org/10796/ch4/ch4.htm
Motion in two dimensions: http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/twodim/index.html
Vectors: http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/vectors/vectors.html
These sites have to do with Newton’s Laws and their application to two-dimensional motion and kinematics.

Momentum
Impulse and momentum: http://www.mathsrevision.net/alevel/pages.php?page=81
Conservation of momentum: http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/mom/node3.html
Types of collisions: http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/mom/node5.html#SECTION00631000000000000000 | http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/mom/node6.html#SECTION00640000000000000000
Angular momentum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/amom.html | http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/rot/node7.html
Conservation of angular momentum: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/solarsys/angmom.html
Conservation of momentum, impulse and angular momentum are covered in the links above.

Work, energy, and power
Overview of each: http://www.mathsrevision.net/alevel/pages.php?page=93
Calculating work: http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/Class/energy/u5l1aa.html
Kinetic energy: http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/Class/energy/u5l1c.html
Potential energy: http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/Class/energy/u5l1b.html
Calculating work and power: http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/17434-physics-calculating-work-and-power-video.htm?sort=mostwatched&page=2
Basically everything about work and power and energy, however the trick is to know when to apply which equation in which problem.

Circular motion and gravitation
Angular velocity: http://www.algebralab.org/lessons/lesson.aspx?file=TrigonometryTrigAngLinVelocity.xml | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angularvelocity
Angular acceleration: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angularacceleration | http://www.euclideanspace.com/physics/kinematics/angularacceleration/
The right-hand rule: http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/torque/Q.torque.intro.html (torque) | http://www.compchem.org/~shutton/Courses/FA05/1phy210Fall05/ws17-210Fall2005.doc
Newton's law of universal gravitation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27slawofuniversal_gravitation
Satellites and escape velocity: http://www.syvum.com/physics/gravitation/gravitation3.html
Circular motion in terms of velocity, acceleration, and torque. Newton's laws of universal gravitation to calculate the periods of satellites and the escape velocities of a projectile exiting the gravitational pull.

Electricity
Coulomb's law: http://regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys03/acoulomb/default.htm
Gauss's law: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/gaulaw.html
Electrostatic potential: http://teacher.pas.rochester.edu/phy122/LectureNotes/Chapter25/Chapter25.html
Ohm's law: http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/ohm/Q.ohm.intro.html
Kirchhoff's rules: http://electron9.phys.utk.edu/phys136d/modules/m6/kirchhoff.htm
AC circuits: http://www.physclips.unsw.edu.au/jw/AC.html
Capacitors: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/gadgets/caps/caps.html
RC circuits: http://www.rwc.uc.edu/koehler/biophys/4g.html
An overview of electricity with everything from electric fields to electric circuits.

Magnetism
Biot-Savart law: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/biosav.html
Ampere's law: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/magnetic/amplaw.html
Magnetic moment: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/magnetic/magmom.html
Magnetic potential: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Electrodynamics/MagneticPotential
Simulation of charged particles in E/B fields: http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/ChargedParticleInUniformElectricAndMagneticFields/
Lorentz force: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorentzforce
Lenz and Faraday's laws: http://buphy.bu.edu/py106/notes/FaradaysLaw.html
Maxwell equations: http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/LaTeX/Examples/Maxwell's%20Equations.pdf
These sites are suited for an upper-level physics course, so I have tried to keep them as simple and straightforward as possible, except in areas like the Maxwell equations where more detailed explanations are necessary.

Light
Reflection of light in mirrors: http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/Class/refln/reflntoc.html
Refraction of light in lenses: http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/Class/refrn/refrntoc.html
The reflection and refraction of light.

Fluid mechanics
Bernoulli's equation: http://www.princeton.edu/~asmits/Bicycleweb/Bernoulli.html
Pascal's principle: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/WindTunnel/Activities/Pascalsprinciple.html
Archimedes principle: http://library.thinkquest.org/27948/archimede.html
Hagen-Poiseuille equation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poiseuille'slaw
Basic fluid mechanics for liquids, including buoyancy, pressure and volumetric flow.


Earth Science and Environmental Science


Astronomy and space
The solar system: http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/solar-system
Stellar parallax: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit1/distances.html
Stars and constellations: http://www.space.com/stars/
A basic astronomy overview as covered by elementary and middle school courses. Warning: Pluto is no longer a major planet!

Geology
Types of rocks: http://www.rocks-rock.com/rock-types.html
The rock cycle (interactive): http://www.classzone.com/books/earthscience/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es0602page02.cfm
Erosion: http://www.geography4kids.com/files/landerosion.html
Plate tectonics: http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/plates1.html
Mohs scale: http://www.galleries.com/minerals/hardness.htm
The layers of the earth: http://library.thinkquest.org/28327/html/universe/solarsystem/planets/earth/interior/layersofearth.html
Geology in terms of rocks, the rock cycle, and the Earth itself.

Natural disasters
Volcanoes (text and pictures): http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/howvolcanoes_work/
Volcanoes (text and videos): http://www.learner.org/interactives/volcanoes/
Volcanoes (video footage): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgpNqrR318
Earthquakes: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/
Tornadoes (text and pictures): http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/edu/safety/tornadoguide.html
Tornadoes (video): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xCI1u05KDs
Hurricanes: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hurr/home.rxml
Eye of a hurricane (video): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5725Etc4bI&feature=related
Tsunamis: http://science.howstuffworks.com/tsunami.htm
Floods: http://science.howstuffworks.com/flood.htm

Ecology
Food and energy pyramid: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/F/FoodChains.html
Ecological systems: http://www.geography4kids.com/files/landecosystem.html
Biomes: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/index.php
Habitats: http://www.panda.org/newsfacts/education/middle_school/habitats/index.cfm
Endangered species: http://www.kidsplanet.org/factsheets/map.html
Basic ecology and understanding of the living world.

Water
The water cycle: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html
Rivers: http://www.ourwater.vic.gov.au/environment/rivers/how-rivers-work
Lakes and turnover: http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/elements/turnlakes.htm
The ocean: http://www.ocean.com/
Layers of the ocean: http://www.seasky.org/deep-sea/ocean-layers.html
Tides: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide
Wetlands: http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/wetlands.html
Everything you need to know about bodies of water, how they work, and more.

Weather and climate
The atmosphere: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/atmosphere.html
Weather map (interactive): http://www.weather.com/weather/map/interactive/USPA1348
Beaufort scale: http://www.zetnet.co.uk/sigs/weather/MetCodes/beaufort.htm
Devices for measuring weather: http://www.naturalhistoryonthenet.com/Weather/measuringweather.htm
Climate zones: http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm
Cloud types: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Listofcloudtypes
Understanding thunderstorms: http://www.fema.gov/hazard/thunderstorm/index.shtm
About weather, climate, and how to measure them.

Pollution
Air pollution: http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/air.html
Greenhouse gases: http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/greenhouse/Chapter1.htm
Noise pollution: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0835810.html
Water pollution and purification: http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/watewaterpollution.html | http://www.bookrags.com/research/water-pollution-and-purification-wmi/ | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterpurification
Acid rain: http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/
Solid waste: http://www.epa.gov/osw/
Landfills: http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/Landfills.htm
Recycling: http://www.recyclezone.org.uk/
Global warming: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalwarming
These sites cover pollution and its effects, as well as methods to reduce pollution. Be aware that the United States EPA does not fully recognize global warming as a man-made effect due to policy issues.

Resources and energy use
Fossil fuels: http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/fossilfuels.htm
Nuclear energy: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/nuclear.html
How nuclear power plants work: http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm
Hydroelectric power: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html
Renewable energy: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/renewable.html
Soil and water conservation: http://www.tn.gov.in/spc/tenthplan/CH9_4.PDF
Irrigation techniques: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/irmethods.html
Much of what goes on in the world takes up energy and resources, particularly human activity. These sites introduce energy and natural resource conservation.

Back to Contents


Social Studies


American History


AP US History Notes: http://www.colinjeanne.net/apus/history/notes.htm

The American Colonies
The American Revolution
The War of 1812
Slavery and the Civil War
The Great Depression
America in WWII
The Cold War


World History


AP World History Notes: http://www.mrburnett.net/apworldhistory/stearnschapternotes.htm

Early Human History 8000-2000 B.C.E.
Ancient Civilizations 3000-300 B.C.E.
Classical Civilizations 300 B.C.E.-500 C.E.
The Middle Ages 500-1450 C.E.
Early Modern Period 1450-1800 C.E.
The 19th Century
The 20th Century


European History


AP European History Notes: http://bedford.va.k12us.com/mday/AP%20European%20Notes

The Renaissance (1350-1550)
The Reformation (1517-1640)
The Age of Discovery and Enlightenment (1500-1780)
Revolutions: Political and Industrial (1780-1900)
Democracy and Nationalism (1815-1914)
European Imperialism (1870-1914)
World War I
The Rise of Dictators and Totalitarianism
World War II
The Cold War


Government


American Government (Democratic Republic)
British Government (Westminster Parliamentary Democracy)
Chinese Government (Single-Party Socialist State)
Russian Government (Transitional Democracy from Communism)
Iranian Government (Theocracy)
Nigerian Government (Third-World Emerging Democracy)
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